Instructions for Authors

Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to us. These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal’s requirements.

Submissions should be sent by email to

About the Journal

1884 is Bangor University School of History, Religion and Social Sciences’ student and staff journal. It’s editorial board consists of students and staff in the School, with students having taken the lead on its development and production with some mentoring and support by School staff.
Please note that this journal only publishes manuscripts in Welsh or English.
1884 accepts the following types of article: short contributions (up to 3,000 words), original articles (up to 8,000 words), book reviews (up to 2,000 words).

Peer Review

1884 is committed to peer-review integrity and upholding high standards of review. Once your paper has been assessed for suitability by an editor, it will then be double blind peer reviewed by anonymous referees.

Preparing Your Paper


Your paper should be compiled in the following order (elements required for all submissions are printed in bold, elements required for original articles only are printed in bold italics):
title page: title, subtitle, name of author(s), degree or institution of author(s), email address of author(s), abstract (c. 100-200 words), keywords (up to 6);
main text: introduction, main argument, discussion/conclusions;
acknowledgments; declaration of interest statement;
appendices (as appropriate);
table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages);
figures; figure captions (as a list).

Word Limits

Please include a word count for your paper.
A typical short contribution for this journal should be no more than 3,000 words (where relevant inclusive of the abstract, tables, references, figure captions, footnotes).
A typical original article for this journal should be no more than 8,000 words (inclusive of the abstract, tables, references, figure captions, footnotes).
A typical book review for this journal should be no more than 2,000 words (inclusive of references, figure captions, footnotes).
Longer contributions may be accepted if of exceptional quality but should be discussed with the editors prior to submission.

Style Guidelines

We recommend that you use our templates to prepare your article, but if you prefer not to use templates this guide will help you prepare your article for review.
If your article is accepted for publication, the manuscript will be formatted and typeset in the correct style for the journal.

Article layout guide

Font: Times New Roman, 12-point, double-line spaced. Use margins of at least 2.5 cm (or 1 inch).
Inserting accents, special characters, diacritics: For European accents, Greek, Hebrew, or Cyrillic letters, or phonetic symbols: choose Times New Roman font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window and insert the character you require. For Asian languages such as Sanskrit, Korean, Chinese, or Japanese: choose Arial Unicode font from the dropdown menu in the Insert symbol” window and insert the character you require. For transliterated Arabic: you may choose either Times New Roman or Arial Unicode (unless the Instructions for Authors specify a particular font). For ayns and hamzas choose Arial Unicode font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window and then type the Unicode hexes directly into the “Character code” box. Use 02BF for ayn, and 02BE for hamza.
Title: Use bold for your article title, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Abstract: Indicate the abstract paragraph with a heading or by reducing the font size.
Keywords: Please provide keywords to help readers find your article.
Headings: Please indicate the level of the section headings in your article:
First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be in bold, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Second-level headings should be in bold italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Please do not use more than 2 levels of headings in your manuscript. If you believe you absolutely need more than 2 levels of headings, please discuss this with the editors prior to submission.
Tables and figures: Indicate in the text where the tables and figures should appear, for example by inserting [Table 1 near here]. You should supply the actual tables either at the end of the text or in a separate file and the actual figures as separate files. Ensure you have permission to use any tables or figures you are reproducing from another source.
Spelling: Please use British (-ise) spelling style consistently throughout your manuscript.
Quotation marks: Please use single quotation marks, except where ‘a quotation is “within” a quotation’. Please note that long quotations should be indented without quotation marks.

Formatting and Templates

A Word template is available for this journal. Please save the template to your hard drive, ready for use. If you are not able to use the template via the link (or if you have any other template queries) please contact the journal’s editors.


Please use the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for referencing.
If you wish to use footnotes, please follow the ‘Notes and Bibliography Style’ guide.
If you wish to use in-text short references, please follow the ‘Author Date Style’ guide.

Checklist: What to Include

1.       Author details. All authors of a manuscript should include their full name and affiliation on the cover page of the manuscript. Where available, please also include ORCiDs and social media handles (Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn). One author will need to be identified as the corresponding author, with their email address normally displayed in the article PDF and the online article. Authors’ affiliations are the affiliations where the research was conducted. If any of the named co-authors moves affiliation during the peer-review process, the new affiliation can be given as a footnote. Please note that no changes to affiliation can be made after your paper is accepted.
2.       Should contain an unstructured abstract of 200 words.
3.       Between 3 and 6 keywords. We recommend you read Taylor&Francis’ ‘Making your article (and you) more discoverable’, including information on choosing a title and search engine optimization.
4.       Funding details. Please supply all details required by your funding and grant-awarding bodies as follows:
For single agency grants
This work was supported by the [Funding Agency] under Grant [number xxxx].
For multiple agency grants
This work was supported by the [Funding Agency #1] under Grant [number xxxx]; [Funding Agency #2] under Grant [number xxxx]; and [Funding Agency #3] under Grant [number xxxx].
5.       Disclosure statement. This is to acknowledge any financial interest or benefit that has arisen from the direct applications of your research.
6.       Biographical note. Please supply a short biographical note for each author. This could be adapted from your departmental website or academic networking profile and should be relatively brief (e.g. no more than 200 words).
7.       Supplemental online material. Supplemental material can be a video, dataset, fileset, sound file or anything which supports (and is pertinent to) your paper. We can publish some kinds of supplemental material online. If you wish to have supplemental material published with your article, please consult the editors.
8.       Figures. Figures should be high quality (600 dpi for line art, 300 dpi for grayscale and colour images, at the correct size). Figures should be supplied in one of our preferred file formats: EPS, PS, JPEG, or GIF. Should you wish to submit digital artwork in other file types, please consult the editors.
9.       Tables. Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Please supply editable files.
10.   Units. Please use SI-Units (non-italicized) for abbreviations of standard units of measurement like Centimetre (cm), Meter (m), Kilometre (km). Kilogramme (kg), etc.

Using Third-Party Material in your Paper

You must obtain the necessary permission to reuse third-party material in your article.
It is customary in academic publishing that the reproduction of short extracts of text and some other types of material may be permitted on a limited basis for the purposes of criticism and review without securing formal permission (’fair use’), on the basis that:
·       the purpose of quotation or use is objective and evidenced scholarly criticism or review (not merely illustration);
·       a quotation is reproduced accurately, either within quotation marks or as displayed text;
·       full attribution is given.
If you wish to include any material in your paper which may not be covered by ‘fair use’ for which you do not hold copyright, you will need to obtain written permission from the copyright owner prior to submission to reproduce any content, especially image content, in your article. You should also acknowledge and attribute the third party in your article. When content is not copyrighted, that is, when it is held in the public domain, you must still attribute it properly.
Please refer to the Publishers Association permission guidelines and The Copyright Hub for further assistance.
When you are asking permission to reproduce any kind of third-party material from rightsholders, please ask for the following:
·       non-exclusive rights to reproduce the item within your article in 1884 targeted at a specialist academic readership with a defined circulation;
·       print and electronic rights for the full term of copyright and any extensions of copyright to facilitate reproduction of the material in the journal’s print and online editions – we cannot publish third-party material using a time-limited license;
·       worldwide English- and/or Welsh-language distribution rights;
·       if an image, 300 dpi minimum resolution. (Please refer to specific instructions for authors for more details.)
If you are not sure if permission is needed, please consult the editors. You will need to allow several weeks or even months for permission requests, so it is advisable to begin this process as early as possible. Please also refer to our FAQs below, which include guidance on special cases.

Publication Charges

There are no submission fees, publication fees or page charges for this journal.
Colour figures will be reproduced in colour in your online article free of charge. If it is necessary for the figures to be reproduced in colour in the print version, please advise the editors of this. We recommend you use colour images for the print version of your article as sparingly as possible, since colour print drives up production costs for the printed version of 1884.

Copyright and Open Access

1884 publishes all contributions in ‘platinum’ open access. Your contribution will be published both in print and online under a non-revocable Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) Creative Commons License. This means your article will be made available immediately without any limitations imposed on you (or any other party) to reuse it, as long as it is shared alike and the reuse remains non-commercial. There are no article publishing charges (APC) to make an article open access.

Authors’ copies

1884 strives to provide a free author’s print copy of the issue of the journal in which your article was published to all its authors. However, please note that we are only able to provide one free author’s print copy per article. Thus, if your article was multi-authored and you wish to receive additional print copies of the issue of 1884 in which your article was published, you will need to order these and will be charged for each additional print copy ordered (at a reduced rate for 1884 authors).

Article offprints

If you are the corresponding author of an article published in 1884, you will automatically receive an electronic offprint (pdf) of your article as published (‘version of record’). It is the responsibility of corresponding authors to share this electronic offprint with their co-authors. 1884 does not produce traditional (hardcopy) offprints.


Should you have any queries, please contact the journal’s editors at

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